Osteogenesis imperfecta: current issues of etiology, pathogenesis, classification (systematic review)

Ryabykh S.O., Popkov D.A., Shchurova E.N., Ochirova P.V., Ryabykh T.V.

Abstract


The constantly changing information about the genetic nature of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), new approaches to classification and diagnosis, and the growing interest in this pathology require careful analysis and generalization of the available data in the recent literature.
Purpose
Analysis of recent literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis, etiology, classification of osteogenesis imperfecta.
Materials and methods
The literature search was carried out in the scientific literature databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, eLIBRARY, RSCI, and references of the key works. The following inclusion criteria were used: literature reviews, review articles, multicenter studies, cohort studies of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.
Results
This systematic review included 18 publications that met the inclusion criteria. All selected publications were published within the period from 2012 to 2020. The study designs were review articles or literature reviews.
Discussion
Osteogenesis imperfecta is one of the most common types of skeletal dysplasia, a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary bone diseases. OI is characterized by high variability of manifestations, even within the same type and one family. The results of the analysis of the prevalence of this disease in different population groups remain not fully covered. The degree of genetic heterogeneity of the disease has not yet been determined. Research is ongoing to identify new genes involved in the pathogenesis of OI. The introduction of modern methods for determining mutations in genes contributed to the progress of research into the molecular pathogenesis of osteogenesis imperfecta, and identification of new genes, mutations in which lead to OI. The large number of causative genes complicates the process of creating an optimal classification of OI. The difficulty of creating a comprehensive classification of OI subtypes is the fact that there is no clear phenotype-genotype relationship; based on the mutation, conclusions about its clinical severity cannot be drawn.
Conclusion
The classification of various types of osteogenesis imperfecta is still the subject of ongoing debate and research.

Keywords


osteogenesis imperfecta, epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, classification

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18019/1028-4427-2021-27-4-453-460

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