The advent of elastic stable intramedullary nailing for the treatment of long bone fractures in skeletally immature patients

Andreacchio A., Alberghina F., Canavese F.


Management of pediatric long bones fractures is a complex and rapidly evolving field. Traditionally, casting and conservative techniques played a key-role in the management of fractures in skeletally immature patients. However, the surgical approach has evolved steadily over the past four decades or so and increasing evidence has been published supporting the advantages of fixation techniques over conservative methods.
The purpose of this narrative review is to outline how innovations in orthopedic surgery have changed the rationale of treating long bones fractures in children and adolescents with focus on surgical techniques, particularly elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN).
Material and methods
We aimed to describe the main trends in pediatric long bones fractures management and to identify its specificities and difficulties as well as the best standard of care.
The introduction of ESIN has profoundly influenced the management of pediatric upper and lower extremity fractures. Overall, in comparison to conservative techniques, advantages of ESIN include minimally invasiveness, short hospital stay, primary bone union, early mobilization and progressive weight bearing, and good outcome with low complication rate. Moreover, the flexible nail can be used as a closed reduction tool itself.
Irrespective of the technique performed, the key-concepts remain 1) the proper understanding of the injury to treat; 2) the identification the main characteristics of the patient; 3) the pros and cons of each technique; and 4) the potential complications.


long bone fracture, surgery, operative treatment, ESIN; children, adolescents

Full Text


PDF PDF (Русский)



  • There are currently no refbacks.