Long-term outcomes of surgical treatment of patients with tibial plateau fractures repaired with Ilizarov external fixation

Karasev A.G., Zhdanov A.S., Darvin E.O., Karaseva T.Y., Lushnikov A.V., Sutyagin I.V.

Abstract


Introduction
Fractures of the tibial plateau are classified by the location of the fracture line, associated capsular ligamentous injuries to the knee and can result from different types of high – or low-energy mechanisms of injury in patients of any age with different bone quality. These factors are responsible for different long-term functional outcomes and the lack of a generally accepted algorithm for diagnosis and treatment. The objective of the study was to analyze the long-term functional outcomes in patients with tibial plateau fractures treated with the Ilizarov external fixation.
Material and methods
The review included long-term outcomes of 59 patients with tibial plateau fractures treated with the Ilizarov external fixator. Long-term results were evaluated in 53 patients out of 59 (89.83 %) using a subjective and objective clinical assessment system.The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 4 years. Patients were requested to complete the Oxford Knee Score questionnaire used in subjective outcome.
Results
Knee joint function of patients with tibial plateau fractures treated with the Ilizarov external fixation were rated as satisfactory (n = 34; 64.15 %); 16 (30.19 %) and 3 (5.66 %) patients were diagnosed with mild and moderate gonarthrosis, respectively. No infection that would affect the outcome was recorded in the study group. The mean Oxford Knee Score was 43.06 ± 3.44 (SD) in Schatzker type I split fractures of the lateral femoral condyle; 40.50 ± 5.57 (SD) in Schatzker type II split fractures combined with lateral articular surface depression; 40.71 ± 4.27 (SD) in Schatzker type III depression fractures; 42.33 ± 4.22 (SD) in Schatzker type IV medial condylar fractures; 38.50 ± 7.19 (SD) in Schatzker type V bicondylar fractures and 37.50 ± 5.17 (SD) in Schatzker type VI bicondylar fractures with dissociation of the metaphysis and diaphysis.
Conclusions
Tibial plateau fractures can be treated with the Ilizarov external fixation and also with the use of screws at any point of time that allows closed or open reduction of the fracture to ensure the early function of the operated limb, stable bone fixation, control of the fixation stiffness at any stage of treatment facilitating good and excellent functional outcomes.

Keywords


tibial plateau fracture, Ilizarov external fixation

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18019/1028-4427-2021-27-3-313-318

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