Treatment outcomes in patients with multiple and concomitant trauma managed with minimally invasive osteosynthesis technologies and electromagnetic waves of the terahertz range

Lukin S.I., Soldatov I.P., Diachkov A.N.

Abstract


Purpose
To assess the effectiveness of minimally invasive technologies of osteosynthesis and electromagnetic waves of the terahertz range in patients with multiple and concomitant trauma.
Materials and methods
The process of rehabilitation was studied in 513 patients with polytrauma of varying severity which was more than 26 points on the ISS scale. The patients were diagnosed with 545 injuries of different organs and systems. All patients with severe concomitant and multiple trauma were divided into 3 groups: Group I of controls, treated in1995–2001, consisted of 269 patients whose treatment was conservative and aggressive (surgical, with the use of plating or intramedullary osteosynthesis); Group II was the experimental study group consisting of subgroup A of 202 patients treated in 2002–2009 in whom “damage control” concept was applied and subgroup B of 42 patients treated in 2010–2017 using the damage control tactics and new minimally invasive methods of treatment and devices (non-invasive lung ventilation in intensive care for fat embolism; rational osteosynthesis in closed chest trauma; minimally invasive guided method of transosseous osteosynthesis, including the use of fixators with hydroxyapatite coating; rational surgical approach to pelvic bones; universal guide for reaming the medullary canal) and exposure to electromagnetic waves of the terahertz range (EMWTHR)of the xiphoid process of the sternum to stimulate the immune system.
Results
It was revealed that the use of minimally invasive, low-traumatic methods of treating bone fractures in severe polytrauma and methods stimulating the immune system and tissue regeneration (subgroup II B) contributed to an improvement of anatomical and functional results of treatment by 1.3 times compared with the control group. The quality of life of patients in this group, in comparison with the control group, was 1.6 times higher for injuries of the upper limb and 1.9 times higher for injuries of the lower limb. An integral analysis of the effectiveness of the treatment revealed a reliable increase in the effectiveness to a satisfactory level.
Conclusion
The use of EMWTHR in the complex treatment of such patients is a promising method for stimulating hematological and immunological processes. The first results described in the literature are optimistic.

Keywords


multiple and concomitant trauma, bone fractures, electromagnetic waves, Ilizarov apparatus, transosseous osteosynthesis, complications, treatment results, quality of life

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18019/1028-4427-2021-27-1-6-12

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