Healthcare resources to care for spinal conditions: international experience (a systematic scoping review)

Dulaev A.K., Kutianov D.I., Zhelnov P.V., Brizhan’ S.L.


Review emerging trends within healthcare sectors internationally to care for spinal conditions in developed Western European and North American countries.
Material and methods
An explorative review of electronic bibliographic (Scopus, Pubmed, etc.), thesis and dissertation database, organization websites, grey literature resources and reference lists of relevant papers was undertaken to identify the key publication outlets for relevant content between 2016 to 2020. In the present review, the depth of the search was 27 years (post 1994). This review utilized a methodology structured using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA-ScR and PRISMA-S preprint) checklist with the description available on
The researchers explored the conditions for strong primary spine care providing effective measures and strategies in streamlining patients and examined the appropriateness of referrals for high-technology imaging assessment. Primary care with its integrative function is provided by professionals with specialized training including general practitioners and nurses. Guidance on the management and standards of inpatient care for a diverse and complex range of conditions are of concern with a focus on specialized spinal services providing invasive management strategies for traumatic spinal cord injuries, in particular. Direct access to diagnostic procedures is essential at specialised spinal services providing conservative and surgical management for a acute spinal diseases with the decision making process and care for this group of patients being very complex with little support of evidence based medicine sources.
Significant input from clinical and support services is required to provide clinical practice guidelines based upon the best available research evidence and practice experience with a greater range of approaches and techniques.


spine disease, health care system, triage, general practitioner, nursing personnel, diagnostic radiology, surgical treatment, spine surgery

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