Regional anesthetic techniques for hip surgery in children with cerebral palsy

Evreinov V.V., Zhirova T.A.

Abstract


Patients with cerebral palsy (CP) experience pain through the lifespan. The hip joint is the main source of nociceptive input. Use of nonopioid adjuvant medication and regional anesthesia for hip surgeries can be an integral part of a perioperative strategy to decrease opioid use. Regional anesthesia can be delivered efficiently and safely for pediatric orthopedic patients.
Objective
To compare different regional anesthetic techniques used for multi-level lower limb orthopedic surgeries in children with moderate and severe CP.
Material and methods
A prospective randomized comparative clinical trial enrolled 101 CP patients who underwent unilateral multi-level lower limb surgery for spastic hip displacement or subluxation. According to a type of anesthesia used, patients were allocated into 3 groups: patients receiving prolonged epidural analgesia (PEA) and fentanyl for sedation (PEAF, n = 32); patients receiving PEA and benzodiazepine for sedation (PEAB, n = 37), and patients receiving a continuous femoral plus single-shot sciatic nerve block and benzodiazepines for sedation (FSNBB, n = 32). Hemodynamic findings, pain intensity, a need for opioids and additives (NSAIDs), the level of sedation and complication rate were evaluated.
Results
The use of NSAIDs (paracetamol) was significantly higher in PEAB and FSNBB groups as compared to PEAF patients with fentanyl administered, and there were no statistically significant differences in the level of pain recorded with the r-FLACC score among the study groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of sedation and agitation measured with the Ramsay Sedation Scale and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) among the groups at early postoperative period. Apnoea as a complication was observed in a PEAF patient.
Conclusion
A continuous femoral plus single-shot sciatic nerve block and PEA added with NSAIDs (paracetamol) and benzodiazepines for sedation have shown the comparative effectiveness and safety for a perioperative analgesia of CP patients undergoing multi-levellower limb surgeries as compared to the use of PEA and fentanyl for sedation.

Keywords


cerebral palsy, childhood, continuous femoral nerve block, prolonged epidural analgesia, hip surgery

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18019/1028-4427-2020-26-4-521-526

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