Morphological assessment of osteointegration of various implants for management of long bone defects (experimental study)

Reznik L.B., Erofeev S.A., Stasenko I.V., Borzunov D.Y.

Abstract


Purpose
To assess osseointegration of implants made of various osteoconductive materials in an animal experiment by management of a long-bone diaphysis defect complicated with chronic osteomyelitis.
Materials and methods
Experimental studies were conducted on 24 healthy outbred adult rabbits for six weeks. Diaphyseal defects were managed with allo-, ceramic, and carbon implants.
Results and discussion
With carbon material, an adhesive interaction between the implant and the maternal bone tissue was of intercalation type. Osteointegration was evidenced by the presence of microfragments of an implant in bone tissue extracted for morphological study from the peri-implant zone, with areas of numerous osteoid islets. With a ceramic implant in the defect, no signs of remodeling and osteointegration in the implant extracted for morphological examination of bone tissue were detected. In the experiment with allograft, the area of implantation was isolated by a fibrous capsule, in which individual osteo-osteoid areas were seen without typical bone structure formation, and complete bone fusion was not achieved.
Conclusion
Morphological data on the regeneration processes prove the advantages of a carbon nanostructured implant relative to the other osteoplastic materials used in this animal experiment.

Keywords


experiment, long bone, osteomyelitis, bone defect, nanocarbon implant, allograft, ceramic implant

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18019/1028-4427-2019-25-3-318-323

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