Clinical and radiographic results of multilevel surgical interventions forhip subluxation and dislocation in children with cerebral palsy

Tomov A.D., Diachkov K.A., Popkov D.A.

Abstract


Introduction
The purpose of this work was to study the results of orthopedic correction performed according to the principles of one-stage multilevel surgical intervention in cerebral palsy patients with hip dislocation.
Material and methods
We studied the results of operative orthopedic treatment in 50 children suffering from cerebral palsy (GMFCS levels IV and V, mean age 6.2 ± 1.4 years at the beginning of treatment) who underwent multilevel interventions with the purpose of hip joint reconstruction and correction of other orthopedic complications of cerebral palsy in the knee and foot. The parameters of the orthopedic status were studied as well as such radiographic data as the Reimers index, acetabular index, acetabular frontal depth index, projection neck-to-shaft angle, Wiberg index, tibiotalar angle, angle of the talocalcaneal divergence in the sagittal and frontal planes, coverage of the head of the talus with the navicular bone. The mean follow-up period was 2.8 ± 1.7 years.
Results
Patients underwent 91 reconstructive interventions during the study period involving 461 surgical elements (5.07 per operation on average). The goals of the pathology correction were achieved in all cases. In all patients, by the end of the first year after the operation, hip abduction was more than 30 degrees and flexion was more than 100 degrees. Comfortable sitting posture and correct passive symmetrical verticalization, pain relief in everyday life were reported in all cases. The shape and position of the foot made it possible to use comfortable regular footwear during verticalization, as well as during walking. By the end of the second follow-up year, a decrease in hip abduction to 20 ° was detected in only two patients. In two cases, a partial recurrence of foot valgus was observed which occurred by axial limb loading and required the use of an orthotic appliance. All radiological indicators examined after the treatment remained within the limits of normal values during the follow-up period. But there was a mild tendency to reduction of hypercorrection achieved which was within the normal boundaries.
Conclusion
Multilevel operations in children with severe types of cerebral palsy and hip dislocation as the leading pathology are aimed at achieving correction of all orthopedic problems in the lower limbs. The result of such interventions is not only normal anatomical parameters but also the creation of conditions for rehabilitation measures, especially postural management, which is extremely important for normal hip joint development and prevention of hip subluxation and dislocation recurrence in children.

Keywords


cerebral palsy, hip dislocation, one-stage multilevel orthopedic surgery

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